Armenians in Van trade directories 1880s/1890s

The city of Van is described in an 1891 French-language trade directory as follows:

“VAN (chief town of the vilayet). An old town, founded by Semiramis according to local tradition. The city is built near the edge of Lake Van, at approximately 5,200 feet above sea level. At the foot of the large rock that forms the citadel, remains of ancient buildings and cuneiform inscriptions have been found. 30,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 are Armenian.

The suburb called Aykesdan (“the vines” or “the vinyards”) is very pleasant.

The port is in commercial communication with secondary ports on the lake such as Nareg [Narek – modern Yemişlik], Ardjich [Arjesh – modern Erciş] and Tadouan [Datvan – modern Tatvan]. The lake is 80 miles long by 35 miles wide, if one does not count the gulf which extends inland to the NE and which measures 700 sq km, which makes the total extent of the lake about 3,500 sq km.

In the months of May and June, the darekh fish [Alburnus tarichiis – the only fish native to Lake Van] is caught in great quantities, and both exported to Persia and preserved for the winter.

Products: wheat, barley, vegetables, fruits, wines, oils, coal (untapped until today), zirnik [sodium sulfide], darekh fish, wool, tiftik [mohair], goat and sheep skins, and some furs. Salts [minerals?] are rich enough in the surroundings of Van. In Djoulamerik [Julamerik – modern Hakkâri], there is a mine with abundant reserves of zirnik but which is long abandoned.

Industries: cotton fabrics of various kinds, carpets, tanneries, belts.

Imports: European and Persian manufactures, colonial goods, cotton, worked skins.

Exports: cattle, sheep, galls [used for ink and dye], skins, wool.

12 Armenian churches, several convents, 4 mosques (one a former church), several Armenian schools, two preparatory schools. Schools for boys and girls run by American missionaries.”

The city is shown on this Google Map, together with various sites of Armenian interest , including those mentioned in the translation above.

The Armenian residents mentioned in the directories consulted – those for 1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896 – are as follows.


Alemian, Aslan, banker [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Babiguian, brothers, merchants [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Bartevian, Artin, tanner [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Chadvorian, Avedis, banker [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889]
Chahbazian, Manouk, merchant [1889]
Chahbinderian, Margos, merchant [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Chaldjian, Agop, merchant [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889]
Chirvanian, Nishan effendi, dragoman for British Vice-Consul [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Der Artinian, Simon effendi, dragoman for Persian Consul [1896]
Der Ohannessian, Kirkor, merchant [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Derdivonessosian, Nerses, stationer & bookseller [1893, 1894, 1896]
Djidadjian, brothers, merchants [1893, 1894, 1896]
Eremian, O, merchant [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Fadjian, Var., merchant [1889, 1891]
Hussian, Mihran, dragoman to Russian Consulate [1883, 1885, 1889]
Kaprielian / Kabrielian, Haroutioun, shoemaker [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891]
Khaghakhortian / Kaghaghortian, brothers, merchants [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Kaldjian, Artin, banker [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Kaldjian, Kievork bey, merchant [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889]
Kaldjian, Var., merchant [1891]
Kalikian, brothers, merchants [1893, 1894, 1896]
Kapamadjian, -, bankers [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Kapamadjian, brothers, manufacturers [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Kapamadjian, brothers, merchants [1881, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Kapamadjian, Bedros, agent of Imperial Ottoman Bank [1896]
Khadjian, Nishan effendi, dragoman for Persian Consul [1893, 1894]
Khanikian, Garebet, merchant [1893, 1894, 1896]
Khrimian, Miguirditch, Armenian Apostolic Prelate [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891]
Kondadjian [Konderdji], Mig., bookkeeper & accountant, tobacco board [1893, 1894, 1896]
Levonian, -, stationer & bookseller [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Maroutian effendi, merchant [1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Nabboundian, Garabet, merchant [1889]
Nalbandian, Garabet, merchant [1891]
Ohannes, Armenian Apostolic suffragan bishop at Başkale [1881]
Ohannes effendi, merchant [1889, 1891]
Pagr[e]vantian, Der Sahag vartabet, Armenian Orthodox Archbishop [1893, 1894, 1896]
Portucalian, M, stationer & bookseller [1883, 1885, 1889]
Portukalian, Miguirditch, founder & director of the United Armenian Society School / Van Central School [1881, 1883, 1885]
Puzantian, -, stationer & bookseller [1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Santourdjian, Ohannes, merchant [1893, 1894, 1896]
Sapoundji, Agop, merchant [1889]
Sironandjian, Karekin, Armenian Apostolic vicar general [1881]
Takvorian, effendi, chief engineer for Van vilayet [1885, 1889]
Tateos, father, Armenian Apostolic vicar [1891]
Tcherlemezian, M, stationer & bookseller [1883, 1885, 1889]
Tchilingaroff, G, dragoman for Russian Vice-Consul [1893, 1894, 1896]
Terlemezian, Manoug & M, merchants [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891]
Terlemezian, Sahak & brothers, merchants [1893, 1894, 1896]
Terzibachian, Artin effendi, merchant [1889]
Terzibachian, Haroutioun, merchant [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Tokmakian, Markar, manufacturer [1881, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896]
Tutundjian, Manass, merchant [1893, 1894, 1896]
Vartan, Sahag bey, manager of the tobacco board [1893, 1894]
Vartazarian, Mihran, doctor [1881]

The image below shows Van on a British Intelligence Division, War Office map of 1901, based on triangulation and reconnaissance carried out between 1880 and 1900 by various army officers and consular staff.

Van, 1901


Surb Khach, Akhtamar

Surb Khach, Akhtamar


Prominent Armenians in eastern Anatolia vilayets, 1891 (part 4)

This is the fourth part in a series of blog posts extracting entries for Armenian professionals and tradesmen from a French-language trade directory for 1891. Please see the earlier post for background.

This post covers the vilayet of Mamuret-ul-Aziz. The Google Map shows the location of the places in question.

Mamuret-ul-Aziz vilayet

Kharpert (Elazığ)

Adanalioglou, -, merchant
Artin effendi, doctor & male midwife
Aslanian, Mikael, lawyer
Bahtchiranian, Ohannes, barber
Boghossian, A, currency exchange
Chouchanian, Mardiros, currency exchange
Dacho, Gaspar, dealer in leather
Damlayan, Loghomon (Soghomon?), jeweller
Demirdjioglou, Thoros, merchant
Derbaghdassarian, S, druggist
Derbaghdassarian, Serkis, stationer
Djierdjian, O, textiles manufacturer
Elmassian, Ezeguiel, tailor
Ermanian, Astour, merchant
Garabetian, Donabed, currency exchange
Gasparian, Soghomon, goldsmith
Gochediguian, Gapriel, textiles manufacturer
Gulbenkian, Artin, banker
Husnianian, G, Armenian Apostolic vicar
Ipekdjian, K, textiles manufacturer
Ipekdjian, Kircor, manufacturer
Karpoutian, O, currency exchange
Kechichian, Kirkor, textiles manufacturer
Khatchadourian, Eghia, carpenter
Kirkorian, Ohannes, café owner
Kurdjian, Kircor, manufacturer
Kurdjian, Ohannes, shipping agent
Magakian, G, dealer in leather
Meguirditch effendi, pharmacist
Melconian, Capriel, merchant
Minak effendi, doctor
Nekimian, Artine, doctor & male midwife
Papasian, Kirkor, stationer
Sakaian, Andon, Armenian Catholic vicar
Serkis effendi, dentist
Soghuigian, Kirkor, shoemaker
Soguigian, Bagdasar, goldsmith
Souvadjian, Ohannes, currency exchange
Tarakdjian, Diradour, banker
Tcheupian, Zakar, watchmaker
Tchilenguirian, Bal., shoemaker
Tenekdji, Agop agha, agent
Terzian, Kirkor, tailor
Topoussian, Loussik, midwife
Vartanian, Kirkor, Persian Agent-Consul
Zartaridji, Boghos, café owner
Zouloumnian, Gaspard, merchant

Arabkir (Arapgir)

Abahouni, Eznik, Armenian Apostolic bishop
Adjemian, brothers, Aleppo soap merchants
Adjemian, Hadji Artin, cotton merchant
Adjemian, Hadji Bedros, cotton merchant
Adjemian, Bedros, textiles manufacturer
Adjerahian, brothers, carpenters
Aghazarmian, Avedis, dealer in leather
Ahgablygian, Ohannes, shoemaker
Ahidjanian, Mikael, farrier
Apkarian, Garabed, barber
Atchikbachian, brothers, carpenters
Aydjian, brothers, cotton merchants
Aydjian, Melcon, textiles manufacturer
Aydjian, Minas, dealer in oils
Ayras, Ohannes, coppersmith
Baghdassarian, brothers, stonemasons
Bahdjebanian, Kevork, wine & mastic dealer
Caloustdjan, brothers, Aleppo soap merchants
Caloustian, brothers, carpenters
Caloustian, brothers, cotton merchants & textiles manufacturers
Caloustian, brothers, dealers in oils
Cassapian, O, head of the tobacco board
Cavourmadjian, Garabet, founder
Chepiklian, brothers, manufacturers
Chirinian, Sarkis & brothers, farriers
Demirdjian, brothers, tool makers
Der Kaprielian, Kar., pharmacist
Der Minassian, Siragan & son, manufacturers
Derderian, Man., shoemaker
Devedjian, Baghdasar, ironmonger
Dividjian, Minas, druggist
Djandjighian, Garabed, textiles manufacturer
Djandjighian, P, textiles manufacturer
Djavian, brothers, textiles manufacturers
Djigherdjian, Ovaghim, manufacturer
Egarian, brothers, cotton merchants, textiles manufacturers & Aleppo soap merchants
Egavian, brothers, dealers in oils
Egavian, Kircor, agent
Egavian, Ohannes & son, manufacturers
Eghinlyan, Hatchadour, shoemaker
Eramian, brothers, cotton merchants
Eramian, Hadji Avedis, manufacturer
Etmekdjian, Agop, currency exchange
Gueghichian, father & son, cotton merchants
Gueghichian, Hadji Sarkis, manufacturer
Gueghichian, Sar., bookseller
Gueghichian, Sirayan, manufacturer
Gulleserian, Thomas, textiles manufacturer
Habechian, Arakel, watchmaker
Haleplian, Kircor, wine & mastic dealer
Hamalian, Mardiros, textiles manufacturer
Hamanetian, Ar., carpenters
Havloudjian, brothers, textiles manufacturers
Hazighian, Hadji, farrier
Hazighian, Kevork, farrier
Hazighian, S, tool maker
Herbeghian, Hatchadour, dealer in oils & ironmonger
Herbeghian, M & son, tool makers
Herbeghian, Ohannes & son, tool makers
Hidichian, Serkis, tailor
Hovsepian, Arakel, coppersmith
Ighidbachian, Garabet, coppersmith
Imdjighian, Avedis, tailor
Ipekdjian, father & sons, textiles manufacturers
Jamgotchian, Hatchadour, watchmaker
Kaloustian, Arakel & brothers, manufacturers
Karacachian, Ohannes, textiles manufacturer
Kasparian, Kircor, barber
Kazandjian, Bedros, currency exchange
Kazandjian, Hovsep, coppersmith
Kendighian, Bedros, restaurateur
Kendighian, Ohannes, restaurateur
Kezardjian, Hadji Artin, dealer in leather
Kontiguian, Marcar, coppersmith
Kouyoumdjian, Kievork, goldsmith
Kouyoumdjian, Mardiros, goldsmith
Kouyoumdjian, Sarkis, goldsmith
Kureghian, Kuregh, pharmacist
Mampourian, brothers, textiles manufacturers
Matighian, Artin, tailor
Muhalian, Ser., stonemason
Nemechehirlian, Artin, confectioner
Odabachian, brothers, manufacturers
Odabachian, Artin dealer in oils
Ohannessian, Jean, Armenian Catholic vicar
Ovsepian, Boghos, textiles manufacturer
Parnabian, Hatchadour, bookseller
Parnaghian, Hatchadour, manufacturer
Sepiklian, Artin, barber
Sevsacoyan, Simon, textiles manufacturer
Sevsakoyan, Hayrabet & brothers, tool makers
Siradjian, brothers, cotton merchants & manufacturers
Siraganian, -, American Protestant missionary
Soultanian, Miguirditch, clothing merchant
Tachdjian, Serop, carpenter
Tatighian, Garabed, barber
Tchagazbanian, brothers, carpenters
Tchepdjian, Ohannes, cotton merchant, manufacturer & Aleppo soap merchant
Tchiboukdjian, Nigoghos, barber
Teghinian, Artin & brothers, manufacturers
Teirkinian, Hatchadour, clothing merchant
Tevekelian, Boghos, manufacturer
Topalminassian, Boghos, druggist
Toumighian, Mamas, tailor
Touradian, Boghos, farrier
Vartanian, Hadji Mardiros & brothers, dealers in leather
Yazydjian, Mardiros effendi, lawyer
Yeramian, Agop, currency exchange
Yeramian, Ohannes, currency exchange
Zirakian, father & son, Aleppo soap merchants
Zirakian, Arsene, farrier
Zirakian, Garabet & son, manufacturers
Zourighian, Garabet & son, manufacturers

Aghin (Ağın)

Abrahamian, brothers, bakers
Aghayian, N, wine & mastic dealer
Akrakian, Kaspar, haberdasher
Alexanian, Baghdasar, professor of music
Alexanian, Nishan, professor of music
Angragnian, Boghos, tailor
Avakian, A, lawyer
Aymelian, Yordan effendi, town councillor & banker
Ayvadjian, brothers, manufacturers of cottons and silks
Ayvadjian, Ohannes, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Azadian, Himayah, photographer
Azarian, Azaria, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Aznavourian, Aznavour, gunsmith
Baghossian, Kricor, watchmaker
Baltayan, brothers, butchers
Bayindirian, Agop, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Bechirian, Kirkor, cabinet maker
Beguian, Kievork, doctor
Berberian, Manoug, haberdasher
Bechirian, Melcon, furrier
Bostandjian, Nishan, gunsmith
Boyadjian, Soukias, dyer
Calaidjian, brothers, coppersmiths
Calaidjian, Eghia & son, coppersmiths
Calaidjian, Stepan, coppersmith
Caloustian, brothers, butchers
Chahinian, brothers, cotton scarf manufacturers
Couyoumdjian, Cosmos & son, goldsmiths
Couyoumdjian, Kevork & son, manufacturers of cottons and silks
Couyoumdjian, S, tobacconist
Couyoumdjian, Tamik, merchant
Demirdjian, Hadji Agop, blacksmith
Demirdjian, Hadji Kricor, blacksmith
Der Boghossian, brothers, shoemakers
Der Kirkorian, K. effendi, member of the town tribunal
Der Kricorian, Kr., banker
Der Kricorian, Setrak, watchmaker
Der Mathossian, brothers, shoemakers
Der Ohannessian, Khazar, tailor
Der Ohannessian, Kirkor, tailor
Der Stepanian, Ha., shoe manufacturer
Diradourian, Aaron, dyer
Diradourian, Mardiros, locksmith
Diradourian, Thomas, merchant
Djanikian, H, president of the civil council
Djanikian, Nishan, secretary to the Armenian Apostolic archbishop
Donikian, Agop, carpenter
Eskidjian, Kr., banker
Eskidjian, Melkon, dyer
Gulistanian, Melcon, dentist
Hopiguian, Hagop, Armenian Apostolic archbishop
Jamgotchian, Nigoghos, banker
Kaftarian, Agop, locksmith
Kalemdarian, Av., professor of music
Kalendarian, brothers, grocers
Kalendarian, G, dyer
Kalenderian, M & son, shoemakers
Kalendarian, Manoug, tanner
Kalenderian, Miguirditch, banker
Kanarian, Kh. , manufacturer of cottons and silks
Kaprielian, brothers, merchants
Kassabian, Alexan, banker
Kassabian, Nigoghos effendi, overseer of the public debt
Kassapian, Bedros, building materials merchant
Kargheuzian, S, secretary of the civil council
Kebabdjian, brothers, haberdashers
Kelboghossian, Boghos, blacksmith
Kellekdjian, Minas, banker
Ketchian, Hatchadour, shoemaker
Khanarian, G, banker
Khanarian, Stepan, dyer
Khanarian, Meyram., merchant
Kouyoumdjian, Kr., banker
Kupelian, Serkis, tailor
Kurdjian, Ghougas & son, bankers
Kurkdjian, brothers, furriers
Kurkdjian, Ohannes, shoemaker
Madenian, M, shoe manufacturer
Madikian, Hatchadour, banker
Manoukian, Hatchadour, blacksmith
Mazmanian, brothers, cotton scarf manufacturers
Mazmanian, K, shoemaker
Melikian, Avedis, tanner
Melikian, G & son, tanner
Melikian, Kevork, tanner
Melikian, Ohannes, tanner
Minnetian, brothers, tanners
Minoyan, Ghazar, baker
Mouhibian, Ohannes, tinsmith
Movses, effendi, town cashier
Nadjarian, brothers, carpenters
Nadjarian, Ghazar, carpenter
Nadjarian, Gozmos, carpenter
Nadjarian, Kricor, cabinet maker
Narfian, S & son, bankers
Narlian, Mikael, money changer
Narlian, S, town councillor
Nedirian, brothers, furriers
Nedirian, Artin, furrier
Nedirian, Soukias, furrier
Nedirian, Stepan, furrier
Nigoghos, Armenian Apostolic vicar
Oghigian, Agop, baker
Osguihanian, N, tobacconist
Oskihanian, brothers, haberdashers
Palouyan, Melkon, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Parseghian, Ohannes, haberdasher
Parvazian, Serkis, secretary to the provincial council
Periguian, Stepan, locksmith
Reyissian, brothers, bankers
Roumian, Hovnan, money changer
Sarian, K, president of the provincial council
Sayian, Nishan, goldsmith
Sayian, Nishan, professor of music
Sirayan, Toros, cotton scarf manufacturer
Surmeyan, Kirkor, wine & mastic dealer
Tamourian, Mardiros, furrier
Tchanguian, Boghos, shoe manufacturer
Tchilinguirian, K, locksmith
Tchilinguirian, S, locksmith
Tchilinguirian, S, shoe manufacturer
Tchinidjian, Nishan, tinsmith
Tchitdjian, brothers, cotton scarf manufacturers
Tchitdjian, Artin, cotton scarf manufacturer
Tcholakian, Asdvadzadour, blacksmith
Tchorian, Alexan, money changer & merchant
Tertzakian, Azaria, professor of Armenian & French
Terzian, Agop, pharmacist
Torikian, Nigoghos, watchmaker
Torossian, Farkhouzad, carpenter
Torossian, Hatchadour, baker
Totvayan, Parsegh, lawyer
Totvayian, B, clerk at the tobacco board
Totvayian, Markar, mechanic
Totvayian, Nigoghos, professor of Turkish, French & English
Totvayian, Ohannes, tobacconist
Tutundjian, Nigoghos, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Vaniguian, K, manufacturer of cottons and silks
Vartabedian, Mig., banker
Vartian, Stepan, pharmacist
Yaridjanian, brothers, merchants
Yaridjanian, Garabed, merchant
Zinzalian, Hovsep, cotton scarf manufacturer
Zinzalian, Bedros, dyer

Khozat (Hozat)

Aharounian, Astour, merchant
Moumdjian, Agop agha, merchant
Sarafian, Kevork, tailor

Chmshkatsag (Çemişgezek)

Adjemian, Mig., agent
Avedis, money changer
Kivutchousian, Serkis, merchant
Nissan effendi, pharmacist
Ohannes effendi, ironmonger
Serkis agha, goldsmith


Prominent Armenians in eastern Anatolia vilayets, 1891 (part 3)

This is the third part in a series of blog posts extracting entries for Armenian professionals and tradesmen from a French-language trade directory for 1891. Please see the earlier post for background.

This post covers the vilayet of Ezurum. The Google Map shows the location of the places in question.

Erzurum vilayet

Karin (Erzurum)

Abadjian, Hatchadour, fabrics
Abadjian, Kircor, money changer
Achedjian, Mariam, milliner
Aghababian, Haroutioun, founder
Aghadjanian, Ohannes, manufacturer
Agopdjanian, Martig, goldsmith
Aidjian, Serkis, lawyer
Albertian, D, bootmaker
Alpertian, Tateos, furrier
Aramian, Agop, builder
Aslanian, -, doctor
Avedissian, Abraham, stove-maker
Baboyan, Mig., goldsmith
Bachemakdjian, A, tinsmith
Baghdassarian, M, coppersmith
Baiendrian, Ohannes, manufacturer
Balassanian, Ohannes, merchant
Ballarian, Garabet, merchant
Ballarian, Garabet, president of the provincial assembly
Ballarian, brothers, bankers
Baltadjian, M, tailor
Baltadjian, N, tailor
Berber Hatcho, barber
Boghossian, A, builder
Boghossian, Alexandre, dentist
Chabanian, K effendi, director of the public debt
Chagoian, N, butcher
Chahanian, Avedis, watchmaker
Chahanian, Har., carpenter
Chamlian, Mardiros, furrier
Condagdjian, -, manufacturer
Couyoumdjibachian, Agop, stove-maker
Der Azarian, brothers, manufacturers
Der Melkissetian, Ohannes, merchant
Dicranian, Agop, dealer in leathers and skins
Dikran effendi, photographer
Dikranian, Agop, hardware
Dikranian, Antranik, hardware
Dilberian, G, furrier
Djaghdjian, Agop, pharmacist
Djaraguian, B, manufacturer
Djermaghian, brothers, merchants
Djermaguian, A, tailor
Djivanian, brothers, hardware
Djoroughian, A, manufacturer
Dondonian, Archag, milliner
Doumanian, Garabet, goldsmith
Duzian, Kirkor, founder
Elfazian, S, hardware
Erganian, A, manufacturer
Erganian, Antranik, money changer
Fermanian, brothers, manufacturers
Ghervant, Armenian Apostolic archbishop at Derjan/Terjan (Tercan)
Ghevonthtin, Armenian Apostolic archbishop at Khnus (Hınıs)
Gundjian, Khatchadour, goldsmith
Hadji Meguirditch, barber
Hagopian, Kirkor & son, gunsmiths
Hamamdjian, A, lawyer
Hamparian, brothers, founders
Hanessian, Tateos, banker
Harouthiounian, K, goldsmith
Hazarabediantz, Capt. E, secretary to the Russian Consul
Hekimian, Har., pharmacist
Hekimian, Mikayel effendi, dragoman
Hekimian, Pascal, director of the tobacco control board
Huradjian, -, watchmaker
Ighidanian, Ag., bootmaker
Illeyan, H, coppersmith
Indjidjian, -, bootmaker
Indjidjian, brothers, hardware
Israelian, Israel, gunsmith
Jamgotchian, Ohannes, coppersmith
Kaitandjian, Agop & Missak, hardware
Kaitandjian, M, manufacturer
Kaitandjian, Ohannes, manufacturer
Kaitandjian, Ohannes & son, merchants
Kavafian, Mardiros, local government cashier
Ketchounian, Garabet, Armenian Catholic bishop
Kevorkian, Ohannes, coppersmith in rue Kazandjilar
Khanamirian, Garabet, money changer
Khatchiguian, brothers, hardware
Khepeian, H, manufacturer
Kievorkan, Har., fabrics
Mangassarian, M, manufacturer
Manoukian, Mikael, lithographer
Manoussadjian, P, fabrics
Mardirossian, Serkis, coppersmith
Mardoyan, Garabet, furrier
Mehrian, Dicran, soapmaker
Mikaelian, G, gunsmith
Missirian, G, dealer in leathers and skins
Missirian, Har., manufacturer
Missirian, K, elementary school teacher
Missirlian, A, tailor
Mondji, Kaspar, butcher
Mouradian, H, coppersmith
Nerses, Armenian Apostolic archbishop at Sper (İspir)
Nersessian, Kirkor, tailor
Nigoghossian, A & brothers, gunsmiths
Odabachian, Krikor, photographer
Ohanessian, Kerope, founder
Onnig bey, builder
Ouzounian, Agop, pharmacist
Pambouguian, K, jeweller
Pambouguian, M, jeweller
Pamboukdjian, Alexan, hardware
Pamboukdjian, S, hardware
Papazian, Gabriel, lawyer
Pasdermadjian, Setrak effendi, chief accountant of tobacco control board
Sahatdian, brothers, jewellers
Sahatdjian, brothers, dealers in leathers and skins
Sahatdjian, brothers, merchants
Sahatdjian, Alexan, watchmaker
Sahatdjian, Hat. , watchmaker
Sanassarian, M, Armenian Catholic secondary school teacher
Seferian, Serkis, manufacturer
Serabian, Arsene, dragoman to the Russian Consul
Serope effendi, builder
Seropian, Andonig, lawyer
Sirabian, Ohannes, dragoman to the French Vice-Consul
Tachdjian, Sarkis, translator to the Russian Consul
Tajoian, brothers, tailors
Tanderdjian, brothers, dentists
Tchamachourian, M, carpenter
Tchilinguirian, -, director of the Arznian secondary school, Grande Rue de l’Église
Tchitdjian, brothers, manufacturers
Terempian, V, manufacturer
Timotheos, Armenian Apostolic archbishop at Pasen (Pasinler)
Toumassian, Mesrop, Armenian Apostolic archbishop at Keghi (Kiğı)
Vahamian, Nerses, president of the Armenian Apostolic religious council
Vartanian, A & son, manufacturers
Vassilian, Senekerim, money lender
Vemian, Avedis, gunsmith
Vemian, K, gunsmith
Yazidjian, Ohannes, goldsmith
Yuzukdjian, Serafim, engineer
Yuzukdjian, Serope, builder
Zakarian, Bedros, tinsmith

Yerznka (Erzincan)

Achekian, L, supplier to the army
Achekian, brothers, manufacturers
Aghayeguian, Avedis, locksmith
Aghayeguian, Avedis, toolmaker
Asdourian, Mihran, money changer
Avakian, Kircor, scarf manufacturer
Avekian, brothers Hatchadour & Israel, carpenters
Badiguian, brothers, farmers
Balyan, Parsegh, supplier to the army
Bagrdjian, R, vicar
Basmadjian, S, money changer
Bozardjian, Dakes, bootmaker
Der Melkonian, M, lawyer
Der Mouchegian, K, carpenter
Der Moucheghin, D, builder
Der Moucheghin, Kircor, gunsmith
Der Stepanian, S, merchant
Der Varjabedian, H, ironmonger
Ehramdjian, Ohannes, ironmonger
Ehramdjian, V, manufacturer
Ghazarossian, Capriel, supplier to the army
Ghazarossian, Capriel, merchant
Hogroghian, W, towel manufacturer
Ipekdjian, Haroutioun, bootmaker
Kalfayan, Hair., money changer
Kantchanian, S, towel manufacturer
Karabaghli, Haroutioun, goldsmith
Karayan, brothers, merchants
Katchian, Nishan, merchant
Kazandjian, Artin, lawyer
Kazandjian, H, scarf manufacturer
Khatchadourian, brothers, manufacturers
Kocheyan, Mar., café owner
Kouyoumdjian, Agop, tailor
Kouyoumdjian, Ghazar, goldsmith
Kouyoumdjian, Nishan, goldsmith
Lepian, brothers, manufacturers & merchants
Luledjian, C, president of the local assembly
Manachian, Serkis, merchant
Mechgoyan, brothers, farmers
Metsadourian, Meg., watchmaker
Mikaelian, Avedis, watchmaker
Mitchiguian, brothers, ironmongers
Morsiguinian, L, towel manufacturer
Norsighian, Mich., builder
Norsiguian, M, carpenter
Oghlouyan, O, towel manufacturer
Pachayan, M Ph., director of state tobacco
Papazian, Ovannes & Tatheos, painters
Piloyan, Ghougas, café owner
Piloyan, Ohannes, tailor
Pirziguian, brothers, farmers
Sahaguian, Hatchadour, ironmonger
Santiguian, K, bootmaker
Sarkis, R, president of the religious council
Sepian, H, president of the civil council
Serian, brothers, manufacturers
Seyissian, H, scarf manufacturer
Sirabian, brothers, ironmongers
Souldourian, Toros, locksmith
Soussiguian, Kievork, tailor
Surmenyan, brothers, money changers
Tanielian, Djivan & brothers, suppliers to the army
Tatian, G, towel manufacturer
Tavtiguian, Dert., café owner
Tchatanian, G, locksmith
Terzian, Kricor, bootmaker
Thogurian, brothers, manufacturers
Tirakian, Avedis, tailor
Torossian, brothers, manufacturers
Torossian, M, merchant
Vartabedian, brothers, merchants

Bayazit (Doğubayazıt)

Kirmogian, Ohannes, merchant
Manoughian, Ser., merchant
Ohannes, holder of the Armenian Archbishopric
Tanielian, Markar, merchant
Tchetdjian, Hatchadour, merchant




Prominent Armenians in eastern Anatolia vilayets, 1891 (part 2)

This blog post is a continuation of an earlier post containing entries for Armenian professionals and tradesmen extracted from a French-language trade directory for the year 1891. Please see the earlier post for background.

The caveat emptor that other Eastern Christians (such as Chaldeans and Syriacs) may have slipped in among the intended Armenians is particularly pertinent for this second post, which covers the vilayet of Diyarbakır. The Google Map shows the location of the places in question.

Thomas Boyadjian, named in the Diyarbakır listing as the British Vice-Consul, died at some date between December 1894 and June 1896, during the Hamidian massacres in Diyarbakır. His widow Eliza Ann née Rogers (1846-1923) and two children Isabella (Zabelle) Catherine (1873-1957) and Henry Samuel Rogers Boyagian (1875-1947) moved to England in 1896. Their Armenian surname was rendered variously as Boyadjian, Boyagian and Boyajian in English.


Diarbekir vilayet

Dikranagerd (Diyarbakır)

Abdalian, Nerses, manufacturer
Abidian, Yahcop, builder
Adamian, -, carpenter
Adjamian, Boghos, merchant
Adjamian, O, carpenter
Aludjian, Garabet, coppersmith
Alyanak, Thomas, merchant
Amassian effendi, head of international postal and telegram service
Asadourian, Hah., coppersmith
Ashitchian, Garabet, coppersmith
Asori, Agop, coppersmith
Atarian, B, bootmaker
Baboyan, Iaukhman, coppersmith
Baboyan, Thomas, tailor
Baghdasarian, Mardiros, bootmaker
Bakalian, Hovsep, jeweller
Basmadjian, A, bootmaker
Bedrossian, Garabet, builder
Bedrossian, Ohannes, builder
Berberian, Bedros, glassmaker
Berberian, Thomas, bootmaker
Beuredjian, V, agent of the tobacco board
Boghos effendi, lawyer
Boghossian, Daniel, builder
Boulutian, Thomas, leather manufacturer
Boyadjian, H, merchant
Boyadjian, Melcon, merchant
Boyadjian, Ohannes, merchant
Boyadjian, Thomas, British Vice-Consul for Kurdistan (vilayets of Diarbekir, Erzeroum & Van)
Boyajian, G, dentist
Bundukian, Hovsep, pharmacist
Calustian, Egh., barber
Cazezian, Houssep & Djabour, merchants
Chakalian, Bedros, tailor
Changalian, Boghos, goldsmith
Chekerledmedjian, H, glassmaker
Chirigdjian, D, glassmaker
Chouboukdjian, Bedros effendi, city doctor
Chouldjian, Thomas, carpenter
Chuldjian, Sar., coppersmith
Couyoumdjian, Agop, merchant
Couyoumdjian, Garabet, watchmaker
Couyoumdjian, Mig., watchmaker
Dabaghian, B, bootmaker
Dashtchian, Hovsep, manufacturer
Dashtchian, Ohannes, manufacturer
Delalian, Miguirditch, manufacturer
Derderian, Agop, barber
Derderian, Thomas, bootmaker
Devedjian, Ohannes, tailor
Dicranian, -, glassmaker
Dilberian, Kevork, leather manufacturer
Djerahian, Guiragos, tailor
Djizmedjian, Thomas, tailor
Djkhsetsi, Ohannes, goldsmith
Donjian, Dikran, watchmaker
Doshoyan, Garabet, leather manufacturer
Doujian, Boghos, jeweller
Doujian, M, jeweller
Eeriklian, Ohannes, barber
Faldjian, Kirkor, watchmaker
Ferakian, Oussep, priest of Armenian Catholic Church
Fouroundjian, Giragos , carpenter
Fouroundjian, Ishah, leather manufacturer
Futnian, Hosvep, coppersmith
Garabedian, Agop, builder
Garabedian, D, carpenter
Garabedian, Eva, milliner & dressmaker
Garabedian, S, leather manufacturer
Garge, Agop, carpenter
Guiragos effendi, lawyer
Hagopian, M, tobacco manufacturer
Hakiamian, Giragos & M, carpenters
Hakian, Ohannes, pharmacist
Hakian, T, pharmacist
Hakimian, N, money changer
Halubian, Boghos, bootmaker
Hannayan, Garabed, carpenter
Hanoushian, Y, builder
Hekimian, Hovsep, bootmaker
Helvadjian, G, bootmaker
Helvadjian, Ohannes, coppersmith
Hurmzian, Hanna, glassmaker
Ihrban, Sarkis, carpenter
Ilbanian, Ohannes, merchant
Kahvedjian, Ohannes, watchmaker
Kal, Aroush, tailor
Kalfaian, O, goldsmith
Kalusdian, Erm., coppersmith
Kasabian, B, manufacturer
Kasparian, Agop, watchmaker
Kasparian, Asdvadzadur, builder
Kechichian, Agop, tailor
Kechichian, Mikail & Naoum, merchants
Keshishian, K, money changer
Keshishian, O & B, manufacturers
Khachadourian, Stepan, builder
Khalfa, Agop, carpenter
Khalfaian, Agop, builder
Khandanian, Bedros, merchant
Khdershian, E & G, manufacturers
Khunadjian, G, goldsmith
Kilidjian, Mardiros, pharmacist
Kior Eghoyan, Boghos, grocer
Kiradjian, Kevork, tailor
Kirkorian, Garabet, coppersmith
Kostian, Hovsep, tailor
Kumrahi, Agop, tobacco manufacturer
Kurkdjian, Boulus, money changer
Kurkdjian, Pet. , pharmacist
Kurk-Keseli, Kircor, wine merchant
Lagiagian, B, leather manufacturer
Laglagian, Erm., carpenter
Lalo, Boghos, grocer
Luladjian, Naoum, money changer
Mandaldjian, T, merchant
Mangassarian, B, merchant
Mangoushian, A, goldsmith
Manilian, G, money changer
Manoukian, A, builder
Mildusian, A, goldsmith
Minassian, M, manufacturer
Minassian, Ohannes, merchant
Minassian, Tom., manufacturer
Mouradian, A, pharmacist
Mouradian, David, goldsmith
Mouradian, Sarkis, merchant
Murdjan, Hovsep, tailor
Nakashian, O, bootmaker
Palandjian, G & H, leather manufacturers
Palazian, H, bootmaker
Paluli, Giragos, carpenter
Paluli, Tatos, merchant
Palulian, Ohannes, bootmaker
Papasian, Agop, barber
Papasian, Ohannes, tailor
Papazian, Habib, glassmaker
Papazian, Ohannes, priest of Armenian Apostolic Church
Pardakhdjian, K, leather manufacturer
Parsekian, Agop, carpenter
Paushmanian, Thomas, coppersmith
Pirindjian, Garabed, doctor
Prindjian, E, goldsmith
Puchmanian, Haroutioun, merchant
Rahanian, Kirkor, tailor
Rumian, B, bootmaker
Rusiatsi, Garabed, bootmaker
Saboundjian, Ohannes, glassmaker
Sahaghian, Kaspar, builder
Samoyan, Bedros, money changer
Samoyan, Ohannes, wine merchant
Sarkisian, Mardik, barber
Sasounli, Kirkor, grocer
Sayrakian, Btrus, glassmaker
Shirikdjian, A, merchant
Silivanian, K, coppersmith
Simsarian, Agop, watchmaker
Simsarian, Ghiragos, merchant
Stepanian, M, goldsmith
Tachdjian, Thomas, consular agent for Persia
Tashtchian, Thomas, merchant
Tatarian, T, pharmacist
Tchouldjian, Ohannes, barber
Tehradjian, S, merchant
Terfandjian, Migrditch, merchant
Tokhadjian, Garabed, leather manufacturer
Tomasian, Giragos, builder
Tomasian, H, barber
Tomassian, Hovhanes, leather manufacturer
Topouzian, Egh. , leather manufacturer
Toprahanian, Garabed, manufacturer
Toufangdjian, Rafo, grocer
Uvaz, Ohannes, grocer
Yocoubian, I, leather manufacturer


Amborian, Raphael, porcelain & glassmaker
Arguenlian, Krikor, watchmaker
Aroytian, Toros, manufacturer
Der Sahakoglou, Bedros, town pharmacist
Elvanian, Ohannes, draper
Garabetian, Raphael, founder
Garabetian, Sarkis, manufacturer
Karpoutli, Garabet, watchmaker
Kenderian, Elias, porcelain & glassmaker
Konduradjian, Hanna, shoemaker
Mehanadjian, D, wine seller
Melcon, Armenian Catholic Archbishop

Ergani (Arghni)

Aizounberberoglou, Meg., barber
Alexanian, Bedros, copper mine operator
Alexanian, Garabet, pharmacist
Attarian, Kevork, apothecary
Boulboulian, Sarkis, merchant
Der Samuelian, -, tailor
Donabedian, H, copper mine operator
Garabet, Alexan, apothecary
Karpoutli, Capriel, shoemaker
Karpoutli, Mateos, shoemaker
Karpoutli, Meg., shoemaker
Karpoutli, Minas, shoemaker
Kazarossian, A, toolmaker
Keirkan, Boghos, tailor
Madenli, Avedis, barber
Madenli, Kevork, barber
Madenli, Melcon, jeweller
Mouradian, Garabet, copper mine operator
Mouradoglu, Garabet, founder
Santourdjian, A, merchant
Sarragian, M, copper mine operator




Prominent Armenians in eastern Anatolia vilayets, 1891 (part 1)

The entries for Armenian professionals and tradesmen have been extracted from a French-language trade directory for the year 1891. The sections for eastern Anatolia are arranged by vilayet and, within that, by town. Only certain cities and towns are included in the directory, with a focus especially on those with a pronounced Western commercial interest (as opposed, for example, to market towns with a primarily local or provincial catchment) and therefore on those which are producing or marketing goods for export. This explains, for instance, the inclusion of the relatively modestly sized settlement of Ergani (Arghni): it had a major copper-mining industry.

French orthography may produce renderings of surnames different from those in English (e.g. Ch- and Tch- where English would might use Sh- and Ch- respectively). However, it is quite probable that the spellings of Armenian names adapted to French orthography would be those carried into diaspora by descendants in North America as well as France. The Turkic patronymic suffix -oğlu would, of course, most probably be dropped in diaspora and -ian or -yan used in lieu.

There are some compositorial errors in the original directory. Obvious errors have been corrected silently. However, where the correction is not self-evident, the original text has been retained.

Names in the extracts are ordered A-Z according to the Latin alphabet used in English. In the original text they are arranged by occupation.

Unfortunately, the directory often gives an initial instead of a forename, and of course in those instances the actual forename may be one of two or more commencing with that initial. For example, while the initial O will nearly always be for Ohannes (or a hypocoristic such as Onnik), initials such as A and K could stand for a number of personal names.

Only those names which are clearly Armenian, or very probably Armenian, have been extracted. It is recognised that, for some places, such as Ergani (Arghni) and Dikranagerd (Diyarbakır), a number of other Eastern Christians (such as Chaldeans and Syriacs) may have slipped in to the lists inadvertently. It is also possible that some Persians appear in the lists, although equally it is not inconceivable that some Armenians from Persia might have borne seemingly Persian names.

Occupations are approximate translations from the French originals. Therefore, although the French “orfèvre” is here translated as goldsmith, an individual so described might possibly have been a silversmith or a worker in various precious metals.

Given the length of some of the lists, they will be split over several blogs, by vilayet. This first post covers the two vilayets of Bitlis and Van. The Google Map shows the location of the places in question.

Bitlis vilayet

Baghesh (Bitlis)

Aspadourian, Garabet, money changer
Bacalian, Hatchadur, manufacturer
Bacalian, Simon & brothers, merchants
Basmadjian, Khatchmanoug, merchant
Bechirian, Murad, manufacturer
Checkhoyan, Gh., toolmaker
Choghiguian, Mourad, clothier
Dabaghian, Panos, tanner
Ghuiragossian, Kh., toolmaker
Kaprielian, O, clothier
Kardiguian, Mig., tailor
Kenderian, Krikor & brothers, merchants
Khantcherian, Ohannes, goldsmith
Khatcherian, Ohannes, manufacturer
Khatchmanouguian, Av., banker
Kirmoyan, Aghad., clothier
Kirmoyan, Gaspar, tanner
Kurklian, Mardiros, dyer
Lopoyan, Krikor, tailor
Mateossian, Ohannes, dyer
Mikhtchian, Ga., merchant
Ohannessian, K, tailor
Ozoyan, Krikor & brothers, merchants
Parighian, S, toolmaker
Pariguian, Sefer., clothier
Pegoyian, A, dyer
Sahradian, R Movses, builder
Sarkissian, O, money changer
Soghomonian, Av, coppersmith
Tchoharian, Stepan, director of Armenian Catholic School
Vosghertchian, S, goldsmith

Sgerd (Siirt)

Abrahamian, Mourad, merchant & importer
Gharibian, Boghos, shoemaker
Malkian, Movses, toolmaker
Ohannes, Bishop
Panossian, Movses, grain merchant

Mush (Muş)

Adeyan, Manouk, stove-maker
Aghadjanian, M, banker
Badeyan, Assadour, baker
Badouhassian, Boghos, merchant
Balian, Agop, merchant
Bedrossian, Malk. M, merchant
Bedrossian Makhdessi, S, tailor
Boleyan, Stepan, merchant
Cantarian, Ohannes, bootmaker
Demirdjian, Ohannes, gunsmith
Der Mihitarian, Av., merchant
Djirtyan, Sahag, stove-maker
Donkikian, Boghos, tailor
Eguinian, Artin, watchmaker
Gakhiloukian, Ohannes, merchant
Ghazar, Varbed, gunsmith
Guirintchoyan, Manouk, banker
Hadji, Bedros, gunsmith
Kirounkian, Aghadjan, bootmaker
Loutfian, S, bootmaker
Markarian, Manouk, watchmaker
Midjandjian, B, merchant
Milletbachian, Nigoghos, lawyer
Minassian, Math., tobacco producer
Nalbandian, B, merchant
Poupoyan, M, tailor
Sifreyan, Gaspar, gunsmith
Sudjian, Bedros, lawyer
Varteb, Artine, baker

Van vilayet


Alemian, Aslan, banker
Babiguian, brothers, merchants
Bartevian, Artin, tanner
Chahbinderian, Margos, merchant
Chirvanian, Nishan, dragoman for British Vice-Consul
Der Ohannessian, Kirkor, merchant
Eremian, O, merchant
Fadjian, Var., merchant
Kabrielian, Haroutioun, shoemaker
Kaghaghortian, brothers, merchants
Kaldjian, Artin, banker
Kaldjian, Var., merchant
Kapamadjian, -, bankers
Kapamadjian, brothers, manufacturers
Kapamadjian, brothers, merchants
Khrimian, Mkrtich, Armenian Apostolic Prelate
Levonian, -, stationer & bookseller
Maroutian effendi, merchant
Nalbandian, Garabet, merchant
Ohannes effendi, merchant
Puzantian, -, stationer & bookseller
Tateos, father, Armenian Apostolic vicar
Terzibachian, Haroutioun, merchant
Terlemezian, Manoug & M, merchants
Tokmakian, Markar, manufacturer



Sites associated with the Sufi saint Sari Saltik Baba

The C13th Bektashi Sufi saint is venerated in several places in the Balkans, as well as Anatolia.

Both Muslims and Christians come to the sites in the Balkans, where he is sometimes identified with a Christian saint such as St Naum and especially St Nicholas. One feature of the shrines is that non-orthodox acts of devotion take place, such as tying strips of cloth to trees and making votive offerings during prayer.

Tradition holds that Sari Saltik Baba asked that, when he died, his body be washed and seven coffins prepared, in each of which his body would appear. More than seven sites with a claim are shown on the Google Map.


Armenian Kayseri, 1872

The 1872 defter, or taxation schedule, from Kayseri in Turkey (Gesaria or Kesaria in Armenian) is arranged by mahalle and, within that, by street. The taxpaying householders in each street are then listed. There were 8,119 taxpaying households in total in Kayseri in 1872.

At that date, Kayseri had a total of 108 recognised mahalleler or neighbourhoods, comprising between 16 and 352 households each, with the mean being 75 homes. 67 neighbourhoods were exclusively Turkish, 25 were Armenian, two were Kurdish and one was Greek. However, Greeks and Armenians lived together in some Christian quarters and there were seven neighbourhoods with a mixed Armenian/Turkish population.

The original archival material is in Osmanlı Turkish, written using a modified Arabic alphabet, and has been transliterated and transcribed into modern Turkish, which of course uses the Latin alphabet. One needs to understand the pronunciation of certain Turkish letters to be able to match them with the approximately corresponding letters used in English to spell Armenian names in transliteration. For example, the Turkish letter c may be the equivalent of j or dj, and ç and ş represent the sounds ch (or tch) and sh respectively.

Armenian and Greek personal names are rendered in Turkish style, using the suffix -oğlu to indicate “son of”, rather than an Armenian or Greek surname ending. The entries are terse and it is not always clear whether a surname has already been assumed by a family or, contrarily, a simple system of patronymics is still in use – for example, in the case of entries in the format “Manük oğlu Serkis”, it is not certain whether the individual in question is Sarkis Manoukian, or simply a Sarkis son of Manouk with no settled surname (or with a surname not recorded). Contrarily, when the entry is in the format “Demiroğlu Karabet”, it seems clear that the man’s name is Karabet (or Garabed) Demirian.

It is worth noting that the Armenians of Kayseri were native Turkish speakers.

I began by looking for surnames I knew from previous research to be associated with the town and/or sanjak of Kayseri. I was able to find only about one quarter of these. Either the other names were not from Kayseri itself but an outlying town or village, or they had not been taken by 1872 (which seems less likely).

Some of the names in the defter are simple to match to modern Armenian names, for example:

  • Arzuman oğlu Parsıh = Parsegh Arzumanian or Arzoumanian
  • Beyleroğlu Mardiros = Mardiros Beylerian
  • Erkiletlioğlu Karabet = Karabet Erkiletlian
  • Gürünlüoğlu Kesbar ve Avidis = (brothers) Kasbar and Avedis Gurunlian (or Gourounlian)
  • Kalaycıoğlu Mardiros = Mardiros Kalaydjian
  • Keşişoğlu Kalus = Kaloust Keshishian
  • Minasoğlu Hacı Agop = Agop Minasian
  • Odabaşıoğlu Agop = Agop Odabashian
  • Şahinoğlu Karabet = Karabet Shahinian
  • Seferoğlu Parsıh ve Artin = (brothers) Parsegh and Artin Seferian
  • Taşçıoğlu Ohanes = Ohanes Tashjian

Other names are less confident matches:

  • Acemoğlu Karabet = Karabet Ajemian
  • Dökmecioğlu Agop = Agop Deukmejian

The records mainly involve heads of household, as the taxpayers, and these are usually men – however, there are some women, perhaps mostly widows or women who had inherited property or had established a charitable trust (vakif).

Below are details of the Fırıncı mahallesi. Its name means simply “bakers’ neighbourhood” and it was a small, entirely Armenian quarter of the town, comprising just five streets with 23 taxpaying households, of which 21 are named in the defter. These households are shown in the table below.

street householder interpretation
Hamame Sokağı Kırnıkoğlu Hacı Karabet Karabet Kirnikian
Hamame Sokağı Mardinoğlu Karabet Karabet Mardinian
Hamame Sokağı Kazancıoğlu Hacı Agop Agop Kazandjian
Hamame Sokağı Acıroğlu Artın Artin Adjirian
Kazancı Sokağı Kazancıoğlu Murat Murat Kazandjian
Muytab Sokağı Ağlağanoğlu Hacı Agop Agop Aghlaghanian
Muytab Sokağı Keşişin oğlu kızı Meryem Miss Mariam Keshishian
Muytab Sokağı Köseoğlu kuyumcu Hacı Parsıh goldsmith Parsegh Keseian
Muytab Sokağı Külhancıoğlu Bedirus Bedros Kulhandjian
Muytab Sokağı Acıroğlu Keyfuruk Kevork Adjirian
Muytab Sokağı Çoduloğlu Agop Agop Tchodulian
Muytab Sokağı Ohanes oğlu Parsıh Parsegh Ohanesian, or Parsegh son of Ohanes
Muytab Sokağı Sade Agop oğlu Artin simple Artin Agopian, or Artin son of Agop
Gümüşoğlu Sokağı Berber Ohanes Ohanes Berber, or Ohanes the barber
Güllük Sokağı Abacıoğlu zevcesi Ehsabet Mrs Yeghsabet Abadjian
Güllük Sokağı Güllükoğlu Bedirus Bedros Kullukian or Koulloukian
Güllük Sokağı Üskü oğlu Karabet Karabet Ouskouian
Güllük Sokağı Güllükoğlu kızı Meryem Miss Maryam Kullukian or Koulloukian
Güllük Sokağı Çulha Muratoğlu Mığırdıç weaver Mgrdich Muratian
Güllük Sokağı Ağacanoğlu şekerci Artin confectioner Artin Aghadjanian
Güllük Sokağı Hızarcı Manikoğlu Karabet sawyer Karabet Manikian


Some thoughts on these householders:

  • Two of the streets appear to be named after the principal family in residence – the Kazandjian household in Kazancı Sokağı and the Kullukian or Koulloukian household in Güllük Sokağı (“roses street”).
  • The occupations of four of the householders are given – goldsmith, weaver, confectioner, sawyer. A fifth man – Ohanes, the sole taxpaying resident in Gümüşoğlu Sokağı – is either a barber or bears the surname Berber or Berberian – the original record does not make it clear. Given the name of this mahalle, one would assume that at least one of the men without a given occupation was a baker.
  • Three out of the 21 are women – two described as daughters (kızı in Turkish) and one as a wife (zevcesi), and presumably are respectively spinsters and a widow.
  • Four of the male householders have their forename prefixed with Hacı (Hadji), which would normally indicate that they had performed the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.


The Google Map shows the Armenian settlements in the Kayseri province of the Ottoman Empire before the 1915 Genocide.



This article and map are versions of originals which were published by in 2013/2014.

Turkish names of Armenian villages in Kars province

The place name concordance below shows the Armenian settlements of Kars oblast (province) of the period 1900s/1910s, taken from late Imperial Russian gazetteers. It is designed to help Armenian family historians to locate their ancestral villages, and should be read in conjunction with the Google Map showing the same Armenian settlements under their current Turkish names.

The table gives a) the names as transliterated from the Russian Cyrillic in Imperial Russian official publications, b) their Armenian names in standard transliteration and c) their modern Turkish names.

All errors are the blogger’s own. Additions and corrections are welcomed.


Russian name Armenian name Modern Turkish name
Kars Kars Kars
Zaim Zayim Harmanlı
Matsra Mazra Mezra
Dahskovo Dashkov Yalinkaya
Bulanikh Bulangh Bulanık
Kani-Key Ghani Gelirli
Karakala Karakala Merkezkarakale (Karakale)
Chermali Chermali Çerme
Berna Berna Koyunyurdu
Khas-Chiftlik Khas-Chiftlik Hasçiftlik
Gyarmali Gyarmali Kaynarlı
Giudali Gyodali Güdeli
Karakhach Garaghach Başkaya
Sogiutli-Abad Abat-Sogyutli Atayurdu
Chigirgyan Chghrdan Çığırgan
Khapanli Ghapanli Hapanlı
Bozgala Bozgala Bozkale
Begli-Akhmed Beghli-Ahmed Benliahmet
Orta-Kilisa Ortakilisa Ortalar
Kizil-Chakhchakh Kzil-Chaghchagh Akyaka (Garmirçağatsk)
Uzunkilisa Uzunkilisa Esenyayla
Aguzum Aghuzum Küçükaküzüm
Pirvali Pirvali Büyükpirveli (Eski Pirveli)
Odzhakh-Kuli Ojakh-Ghuli n/a (in Armenia)
Kiuruk-Dara Ghyurakdara, Gyurakdara Kürekdere
Paldirvan Paldrvan Duraklı
Parget (Bolshoy) Metz Parkit Büyükçatma
Bash-Shuragel Bash-Shoragyal Şetindurak
Tikhnis-Stariy Hin Tegniz Kalkankale
Tikhnis-Noviy Nor Tegniz Kalkankale
Ashaga-Kadiklyar Nerkin Gyadiklar Ayakgedikler
Bayrakhtar Bayraktar Bayraktar
Gamzakyarak Ghamzakyarak Hamzagerek
Gerkhana Gorghana Eşmeyazı
Araz-Ogli Arazi Arazoğlu
Dzhala Jala Esenkent
Adzham-Mavrak Acham Mavrak, Ajam-Mavrag Bekler
Karmirk-Vank Karmir Vank Yağıkesen
Koshevank Khoshavank n/a (in Armenia)
Kuyudzhuk Ghuyujugh Kuyucuk
Tazakent Tazakend Tazekent
Bash-Kadiklyar Bash Gyadiklar Başgedikler
Oguzli   Oğuzlu
Orta-Kadiklyar Orta Gyadiklar Ortagedikler
Agdzhakala Aghjaghala Akçakale
Kyadik-Satilmish Gyadik-Satlmish Gediksatilmiş
Parget (Maliy) Pokr Parkit Küçükçatma
Dolbant Dolbandlu Dölbentli
Baykara Bayghara Baykara
Bayburt Bayburt, Paypert Bayburt
Ortakala Ortaghala Ortakale
Sogiutli-Prut Brut-Sogyutlu Söğötlü
Yeski-Kazi, Eski-Kazi Aksi-Ghazi Eskigazi
Karamamed Gharamahmed n/a (in Armenia)
Bezirgyan Beyirgan Eskigeçit
Ardagan Ardahan Ardahan
Okam   Çayirbaşi
Urut Urut Bellitepe
Kagizman Kaghzvan Kağızman
Karabakh Gharabagh Karabağ
Kers Gers Günindi
Khar Khar Çallı
Yenidzha, Enidzha   Yenice
Karavank Gharavank Taşburun
Changli Chankli Çengilli
poselok Todan   Esenkır
Zirchi Zrchi Yağlıca
Pivik-Armyanskiy Bvik Karaboncuk
Laloy-Mavrak Laloy-Mavra Dolaylı
Pakran Bagaran Kilittaşi
Akryak Agarak Derinöz
Dzhalal Jalal Celal (Celalköy)
Zibni Tzpni Varlı
Digor Tikor Digor


Nakhichevan Nakhichevan Kocaköy
Kosha-Kilisa Ghoshakilisa Şehithalit
Khoperan Goberan Gecikmez
Shadevan Shatevan Belencik
Bashkey with poselok

Cholakhli and Kara-Pungar

Cholaghli and


Başköy, Çolaklı, Karapınar
Giulyantapa Gyulantara Beşyol
Sitagan Stahan Eşmeçayır
Akh-Kilisa Aghkilisa  
Armutli Armutlu Armutlu
Churuk Churuk Çardakçatı
Olti Olti Oltu
Dzhudzhurus Jurjuris Subatuk
Zardanes Zardanes Sarisaz
Tamrut Temrut Şendurak
Kubad-Yeriuk Yoruk Derebaşi
Akryak Agarak Sindiran
Pertus Bardus Zömrüt
Olor   Olur



This blog, concordance and map were first published on the bluebirdresearch website in 2011/12.


Syriac settlements in Tur Abdin, Turkey

The Google Map shows some of the Syriac (Suroye or Assyrian) communities in the Tur Abdin region of Kurdistan in SE Turkey, together with a few of their surviving Syrian Orthodox monasteries. In addition, some settlements slightly further afield are also shown, north towards Batman and east towards Cizre.

The map uses the Syriac (rather than modern Turkish) place names. The Turkish toponym can be seen by zooming in on the map. As part of an aggressive Turkification programme, from the 1920s nearly all non-Turkic place names in Turkey were eradicated; this was systemised and codified in article 1 of the 1936 Law for Provincial Rule (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Zabıt Ceridesi, v12, pV,  s1). 91% of place names in Mardin province, which covers Tur Abdin, have been Turkified.

Place names on the map are given in simplified transliteration from the Turoyo (modern Aramaic) used by the Syriacs, without the use of diacritics. As a place name can be transliterated in different ways, some variants are also shown (click on a pin to see). Places are ordered using the Latin alphabet.

Included are some places of historic occupation with no extant Syriac population (due to genocide, persecution and emigration).

It is estimated that there were 200,000 Syriacs in this region prior to the 1915 massacre and deportation of Christians in Anatolia. The Syriac population of Tur Abdin is now as little as 1,765 (2015 figure; according to a register of the community kept by the Mor Hobil & Mor Abrohom monastery).

Armenian Karakala, Kars

Among the Californian Armenian community is a disproportionate number of descendants of immigrants from the small village of Karakala, or Kara-Kala, near Kars. On incoming American passenger lists and in naturalisation records, the place of origin of these immigrants will usually be shown as Russian Armenia, because the region around the city of Kars became the Russian Karsskaya oblast from 1878 to 1917. Before that period, the region was part of the Ottoman Empire and therefore a minority of US immigration records, especially for those Armenians born in Karakala before 1878, may state Turkey or Ottoman Empire, rather than Russia, as place of birth.

There is little to be found on the internet – at least, in the English language and of value to genealogists – about Karakala. There is confusion as to its exact whereabouts. The primary reason for this confusion is that the place name is not unique: there are multiple candidates. Furthermore, place names changed under modern Turkey and some Armenian villages were completely razed and have disappeared from the map. However, the true location of Armenian Karakala can be determined with confidence.

Imperial Russia, like other late 19th century empires, took a lively interest in demographics and ethnography (not least because nationalism needed to be monitored as the single biggest challenge to empire). Russian gazetteers of the period show the administrative geography (the hierarchy of local government from regional capital down to village), the population breakdown and usually something of the ethnicity (natsionalnost or nationality in Russian) of the inhabitants. The colossal 1897 Russian Census was a monument to just such a preoccupation with the population of empire.

Gazetteers for Kars oblast record the entire population down to the smallest villages of no more than 50 inhabitants. The Russian gazetteers for the 1900s and 1910s show consistently that there were nine places called Karakala in Kars oblast. However, Armenian Karakala – the source of the Californian immigrant population – is readily identified. Each of the various entries for the settlements named Karakala gives the nationality of its population. In this respect, while cities and towns in eastern Anatolia were usually of mixed population, the villages in the hinterland tended to be occupied by a single people. Only one of the nine places named Karakala had an Armenian population: of the remaining eight, seven were Muslim villages, identified carefully as Kurdish, Turcoman/Turkish and even Karapapak, and one a Yezidi village.

Under Russian rule, Armenian Karakala seems originally to have been classed as an obshestvo (community) in its own right, with the nearby Turkmen selo or village of Hadzhi-Halil subordinate to it, within the okrug (or district) of Magaradzhik (a Greek Orthodox village). However, later Karakala lost its obshestvo status and became simply a selo like Hadzhi-Halil in Magaradzhik obshestvo inMagaradzhik okrug. The other two villages in the immediate grouping were Azat (which was Greek Orthodox) and Kany-Kei (another Armenian settlement).

Across Kars oblast, the majority of Armenian settlements were growing rapidly during the years leading up to WW1, due to natural growth (families were large) and in-migration. Karakala was an exception to this trend. In 1902, the village comprised 464 souls (as they are described in the gazetteers) residing in 43 households; in 1908, 400 and in 1910 408; by 1914, it had 489 souls living in 79 homes. All were Armenian. The explanation for the mid-1900s dip and the otherwise relatively slow growth in population size and reduction in household size in Karakala is the significant emigration from the village to North America.

So where is Karakala? It is situated 17.5km SSE of Kars and is today called Merkezkarakale. The prefix Merkez (“central”) simply signifies its location in Kars Merkezi, or the central district of the Kars province of modern Turkey; this name was not used during either the Ottoman or Imperial Russian eras. 8km to the NNW is Azat; about 5km to the N is Magaradzhik, now called either Mağaracık  or Ataköy in Turkish; 5km to the NW is Kany-Kei, now known as Gelirli; and 2km to the S is Hadzhi-Halil, now spelt Hacıhalil in modern Turkish.

The first Google Map shows Armenian Karakala, marked with a yellow pin, in the context of the other Armenian settlements in Kars.


The second Google Map shows Armenian Karakala, marked with a yellow star instead of a pin, along with the non-Armenian villages named Karakala.


A third Google Map shows Armenian Karakala in the context of the surrounding villages of different ethnicity or nationality. The Armenian villages are marked with blue pins, and Karakala is the one marked with a blue star instead of a pin at the centre of the map.


There is an old photograph of the village of Armenian Karakala online:

Karakala old photo

Armenian Karakala – photo ©

If one studies Merkezkarakale in satellite view at high magnification on the  Google Map, one thing that is noticeable and common to both photograph and satellite image is the village’s linear structure – essentially it is a single street with plots to the left and right set back at different short distances from the road. Although 100 or more years may have passed, and the village will have been rebuilt and extended, and perhaps shifted its centre of gravity, its basic plan seems remarkably similar today. The axis of the village is NW to SE. The road in the satellite view, extending off to the right half way down the village street (heading roughly N), looks like a more organic recent development. The old photograph seems to have been shot from an elevation and may have been taken on the rising ground SE of the village.


Merkezkarakale today, orientated to match old village photograph 

This is the only village named Karakala with a linear settlement plan in the former Kars oblast.If one looks at each of them in turn at high magnification on the Google Map, it will be seen that all of the others are organic, sometimes seemingly random, clusters of low buildings. Merkezkarakale is the only one with the planned look and feel of a linear village. It has been suggested that Armenian Karakala was built shortly after the Russian administration arrived in 1878; if so, then this would be consonant with the appearance of a “modern” rectilinear and planned layout.

It is not clear whether there are any surviving genealogical records for Karakala; and, if so, where they are held; and whether they cover both the Armenian Apostolic and the village’s burgeoning Armenian Protestant or Evangelical sect known as the “Jumpers” which generated many of the emigrants to California. The 1908 Kars oblast gazetteer explicitly describes the village as Armenian Protestant, so we know that the correct place has been identified.

Among the surnames of the original immigrant Armenian families with roots in Karakala are Katanian, Keosababian, Mooshagian, Nalian, Perumian, Shaharian and Stepanian.

This blog and the accompanying maps first appeared on the bluebirdresearch website in 2010 and 2011.